Researches suggest that the overall occurrence of ischemic stroke during pregnancy is quite low in the developed countries. Majority of such events occur much late in pregnancy and specially in the postpartum period. Strokes related to pregnancy account for around 12 to 35% of the global occurrences. Strokes can become recurrent in subsequent pregnancies, and this is of significant concern to the patients and is a serious issue. Pregnant women who have been diagnosed with preeclampsia have an increased risk of suffering from recurrent strokes.
The causes of strokes in pregnant women points out to the fact that pregnancy itself induces many physiological changes in the body and preeclampsia might result. Strokes in pregnant women when compared to the non pregnant ones, have found an additional risk in the former ones. Hypertension or high blood pressure is often associated with both the ischemic and hemorrhagic kind of stroke and is the most common feature of the preeclampsia disease. Beforethe intake of blood pressure medication during pregnancy, consult your doctor if the medications are safe enough for your developing fetus. However patients who are diagnosed with chronic or acute hypertension in pregnancy should be given an increased attention for hypertension management.
The hypercoagulability disorders are of significant concern for the strokes in both young as well as adult patients. In the young patients it can be related to both arterial thrombosis as well as the venous thrombosis. Pregnancy itself induces a state of hypercoagulability which facilitates the progress of venous thromboemboli in the sensitive individual.Paradoxical embolism takes place due to the presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO). Hemodynamic changes like an increase in the venous stasis and also coagulation profile modifications can facilitate the patent foramen ovale. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is of extremely rare occurrence in pregnancy, in the developed countries.But it carries a very significant mortality and morbidity rate. Cardio embolic stroke, extensively progressive heart failure requiring an immediate transplant is common peripartum cardiomyopathy. It is associated with the symptoms of heart failure as there is left ventricular systolic dysfunction in women, who has no previous history of cardiomyopathy. Complications in patients with peri partum cardiomyopathy, might crop up later in the postpartum period after a smooth and uncomplicated pregnancy and childbirth.
Medicine HIV in pregnancy include antiretroviral drugs for pregnant patients diagnosed with HIV infection. Patients who come with symptoms depicting an acute onset of the focal neurological changes in the absence of alternative causal factors, a probable diagnosis of stroke is generally drawn up. Patients might also possess rare nonfocal symptoms like altered consciousness, headaches etc. However the onset of seizures might complicate the matter, and this is more common in individual who already have venous thrombosis and suffer from subsequent venous infarctions.However it is quite challenging to distinguish actual stroke symptoms from stroke mimics, for a clinician.
Although if a stroke occurs it is immediately necessary to distinguish between ischemic and the hemorrhagic events. A neuroimaging study provides a clear picture of the matter and hence greatly facilitates the diagnosis process.